Audiology Research <p><strong>Audiology Research</strong> is an international, peer-reviewed, open access Journal designed to be a place where the readers will quickly and clearly find up-to-date and high-quality information related to the Audiology and Neurotology field in a broad sense, including the study, early detection, diagnosis and treatment of all conditions of hearing and balance impairment and audiological and neurotological disorders. Papers ranging from the medical/clinical perspective to the basic and experimental research are encouraged for submission. Papers are welcomed in multiple areas including, but not limited to: Disorders of hearing and balance and neurotology, Balance and Hearing Diagnostic tests, treatments for audiological and balance disorders, Rehabilitative procedures, Genetics, Anatomy and Physiology, Psychoacoustics, Speech and Hearing sciences, Vestibular disorders, Neuroscience and Audiology, Epidemiology, Statistics, Engineering. Audiology Research aims to be the forum for discussion on Audiology and Neurotology for a diverse range of professionals, including researchers, clinicians, technicians, officers from health authorities, healthcare administrators.</p> <p><strong>Audiology Research</strong> will ensure fast, highly-professional and fair peer-reviews. The Journal publishes original articles, review articles, brief reports, case reports, protocol descriptions, letters to the Editor, conference reports, survey reports, book reviews, and special articles. Each Journal issue will host an Invited paper from opinion leaders. Proposals of Special issues on key topics are highly welcomed.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Audiology Research 2039-4330 <p>PAGEPress has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.&nbsp;<br><br>An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:<br><br>1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.<br>2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.<br><br>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> Vestibular paroxysmia in vestibular neuritis: a case report <p>The term vestibular paroxysmia (VP) was introduced for the first time by Brandt and Dieterich in 1994. In 2016, the Barany Society formulated the International Classification of VP, focusing in particular on the number and duration of attacks, on the differential diagnosis and on the therapy. Ephaptic discharges in the proximal part of the eighth cranial nerve, which is covered by oligodendrocytes, are assumed to be the neural basis of VP. We report the first case in literature of an onset of symptoms and signs typical of VP in a young man following acute unilateral vestibular loss not combined with auditory symptoms. Indeed, the pathogenic mechanism affected only the vestibular nerve as confirmed by the presence of a stereotyped nystagmus pattern. The magnetic resonance imaging didn’t reveal any specific cause therefore we suggest the possible role of a neuritis triggering an ephaptic discharge as the neural mechanism of VP.</p> Michele Ori Valeria Gambacorta Giampietro Ricci Mario Faralli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-11 2018-05-11 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2018.206 Electroacoustic assessment of wireless remote microphone systems <p>Wireless remote microphones (RMs) transmit the desired acoustic signal to the hearing aid (HA) and facilitate enhanced listening in challenging environments. Fitting and verification of RMs, and benchmarking the relative performance of different RM devices in varied acoustic environments are of significant interest to Audiologists and RM developers. This paper investigates the application of instrumental speech intelligibility and quality metrics for characterizing the RM performance in two acoustic environments with varying amounts of background noise and reverberation. In both environments, two head and torso simulators (HATS) were placed 2 m apart, where one HATS served as the <em>talker</em> and the other served as the <em>listener</em>. Four RM systems were interfaced separately with a HA programmed to match the prescriptive targets for the N4 standard audiogram and placed on the listener HATS. The HA output in varied acoustic conditions was recorded and analyzed offline through computational models predicting speech intelligibility and quality. Results showed performance differences among the four RMs in the presence of noise and/or reverberation, with one RM exhibiting significantly better performance. Clinical implications and applications of these results are discussed.</p> Haniyeh Salehi Vijay Parsa Paula Folkeard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-17 2018-04-17 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2018.204 Quality of life and speech perception in two late deafened adults with cochlear implants The aim was to demonstrate the need for a quality of life assessment in biopsychosocial aural rehabilitation (AR) practices with late deafened adults (LDAs) with cochlear implants (CIs). We present a case report of a medical records review of two LDAs enrolled in a biopsychosocial group AR program. A speech perception test <em>Contrasts for Auditory and Speech Training</em> (CAST) and a quality of life (QoL) assessment the <em>Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire</em> (NCIQ) were given prior to AR therapy. CAST scores indicated both patients had excellent basic speech perception. However, NCIQ results revealed patients’ difficulties in basic and advanced listening settings. NCIQ highlighted patients’ self-perceived poor self-esteem and ongoing challenges to their QoL. Speech perception testing results alone are not enough to document the daily challenges of QoL needs of LDAs with CIs. The inclusion of a QoL measure such as the NCIQ is vital in evaluating outcomes of cochlear implantation in LDAs. Marwa F. Abdrabbou Denise A. Tucker Mary V. Compton Lyn Mankoff ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2018.194 Tympanometric profiles for Chinese older adults The current study aimed at obtaining and examining the normative tympanometric findings in the Chinese older adults (60 to 90 years). The tympanometric data was collected using the Interacoustics Titan IMP 440 clinical immittance meter. This included peak static acoustic admittance (Ytm); tympanometric peak pressure (TPP); tympanometric width (TW); and ear canal volume (ECV). 146 (228 ears) Chinese older adults with normal hearing or sensorineural hearing loss were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation of the tympanometric values include: Ytm 0.48±0.28mmho; TPP -5±11daPa; TW 74±27daPa; and ECV 1.06±0.29 cc. Factors such as ear, gender and age had a minimal effect on all the four-tympanometric parameters studied. Nevertheless, there were a few differences between the present study results and the previously published data. The study results warrant the need for population and age specific normative values for clinical use. Vinaya Manchaiah Naresh Durisala Vijay Marimuthu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-07 2017-11-07 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.190 Mitochondrial hearing loss mutations among Finnish preterm and term-born infants Mitochondrial ribosomal 12S subunit gene (<em>MTRNR1</em>) is a hot spot for hearing loss mutations. Mutations such as m.1555A&gt;G, m.1494C&gt;T and m.1095C&gt;T, cause sensitivity to aminoglycosides. Aminoglycoside treatment induces permanent hearing loss or deafness in the carriers and should therefore be avoided. The prevalence of these sensitivity mutations varies in different countries and populations. Over 90% of preterm children need aminoglycoside treatment during their first weeks of life. Infants who carry a mitochondrial sensitivity mutation can develop a life-long sensorineural hearing impairment as a side-effect of aminoglycoside treatment. Total of 813 Finnish preterm (born G, m.1494T&gt;C and m.1095C&gt;T mutations. The population prevalence of m.1555A&gt;G was determined to be 0.12% in Finland. M.1494C&gt;T and m.1095C&gt;T mutations were absent. Out of the 813 infants, a term-born infant was found to harbor m.1555A&gt;G at 81% heteroplasmy, while his mother’s heteroplasmy was 68%. Both had normal hearing and had not received aminoglycosides. Mothers with a family history of hearing loss who are at risk of preterm labor would benefit from antenatal genotyping of m.1555A&gt;G mutation. The prevalence of m.1555A&gt;G in Finns was close to other European countries. M.1494C&gt;T and m.1095C&gt;T mutations either do not occur in the Finnish population or they are very rare. This study highlights the importance of population-specific genotyping of <em>MTRNR1</em> aminoglycoside sensitivity mutations, especially in countries with liberal aminoglycoside use. Heidi K. Soini Minna K. Karjalainen Reetta Hinttala Arja Rautio Mikko Hallman Johanna Uusimaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-03 2017-11-03 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.189 Day-case management of chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma with canal wall down technique surgery: long-term follow-up The overall number of day-case otologic surgery cases is increasing; however, there is limited experience about performing canal wall down tympanoplasty in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma in this setting. The objective of this study was to assess the success of this technique as daycase surgery in terms of results and complications over an 8-year follow up period. We included in this study 42 patients undergoing canal wall down technique tympanoplasty surgery for chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma performed as day cases during a 2-year period. 30 cases (71.4%) were discharged on the day of surgery, whereas 12 cases (28.6%) were hospitalized and discharged the day after. The principal reasons for failure of discharge on the day of surgery were asthenia (6 cases), vertigo and asthenia (4 cases), undetermined (2 cases). Based on our experience, with a proper preoperative selection, assessment and screening of the patients, mastoidectomy with timpanoplasty for chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma can be carried out in a day surgery setting with no significant effects on effectiveness of surgery, post-operative symptoms and relapse of disease even in the long term. Giovanni Ralli Giuseppe Nola Alberto Taglioni Michele Grasso Massimo Ralli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-03 2017-10-03 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.187 The short hyperacusis questionnaire: A tool for the identification and measurement of hyperacusis in the Italian tinnitus population The aim of this study was to explore the collapsibility of the Italian version of Khalfa’s hyperacusis questionnaire (HQ). We identified the more statistically significant items of the HQ and created the short hyperacusis questionnaire (SHQ). We recruited 117 consecutive outpatients with a primary complaint of tinnitus at least from 3 months. All patients filled in the complete Italian version of the HQ and underwent an audiological examination including uncomfortable loudness levels (ULLs). A logistic model was carried out getting odds ratios (ORs) estimates of hyperacusis according to the items responses. To create the SHQ, we selected six items that were the only ones to present a statistically significant ORs value different from 1. The internal consistency of the SHQ was assessed by means of Cronbach α index. A ROC analysis was performed and an optimal cut-off point was found using the Youden index. Our analysis showed a Cronbach α of 0.67. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), expression of the overall performance of the SHQ <em>versus</em> the ULLs test, was statistically significant (P&lt;0.05). We found a cut-off of 0.24 as indicative of hyperacusis (sensitivity (Se) = 78.79%, specificity (Sp) = 42.50%). SHQ could be useful only in the initial screening of individuals with hyperacusis. We suggest further studies for the validation of a new questionnaire on hyperacusis. Federica Tortorella Silva Pavaci Alessandra Barbara Fioretti Francesco Masedu Maria Lauriello Alberto Eibenstein ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-02 2017-10-02 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.182 Musical training enhances neural processing of comodulation masking release in the auditory brainstem Musical training strengthens segregation the target signal from background noise. Musicians have enhanced stream segregation, which can be considered a process similar to comodulation masking release. In the current study, we surveyed psychoacoustical comodulation masking release in musicians and non-musicians. We then recorded the brainstem responses to complex stimuli in comodulated and unmodulated maskers to investigate the effect of musical training on the neural representation of comodulation masking release for the first time. The musicians showed significantly greater amplitudes and earlier brainstem response timing for stimulus in the presence of comodulated maskers than nonmusicians. In agreement with the results of psychoacoustical experiment, musicians showed greater comodulation masking release than non-musicians. These results reveal a physiological explanation for behavioral enhancement of comodulation masking release and stream segregation in musicians. Soheila Rostami Abdollah Moossavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-08-30 2017-08-30 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.185 Neuro-otological and peripheral nerve involvement in Fabry disease Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy. We studied 36 patients with FD with a complete neurological and neuro-otological evaluation including nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing (to evaluate small fiber by warm and cold threshold detection and cold and heat pain), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonistagmography, audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Neuro-otologic symptoms included hearing loss (22.2%), vertigo (27.8%) or both (25%). An involvement of either cochlear or vestibular function was identified in most patients (75%). In 70% of our patients the involvement of both cochlear and vestibular function could not be explained by a neural or vascular mechanism. Small fiber neuropathy was identified in 77.7%. There were no significant associations between neurootological and QST abnormalities. Neuro-otologic involvement is frequent and most likely under-recognized in patients with FD. It lacks a specific neural or vascular pattern, suggesting multi-systemic, end organ damage. Small fiber neuropathy is an earlier manifestation of FD, but there is no correlation between the development of neuropathy and neuro-otological abnormalities. Sergio Carmona Romina Weinschelbaum Ana Pardal Cintia Marchesoni Paz Zuberbuhler Patricia Acosta Guillermo Caceres Isaac Kisinovsky Luciana Bayón Ricardo Reisin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-07-28 2017-07-28 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.176 Protective effect of Nigella sativa oil on acoustic trauma induced hearing loss in rats Acoustic trauma is a common reason for hearing loss. Different agents are used to prevent the harmful effect of acoustic trauma on hearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential preventive effect of <em>Nigella sativa</em> (black cumin) oil in acoustic trauma. Our experimental study was conducted with 20 Sprague Downey female rats (mean age, 12 months; mean weight 250 g). All of the procedures were held under general anesthesia. Following otoscopic examinations, baseline-hearing thresholds were obtained using auditory brainstem responses (ABR). To create acoustic trauma, the rats were then exposed to white band noise of 4 kHz with an intensity level of 107 dB in a soundproof testing room. On Day 1 following acoustic trauma, hearing threshold measurements were repeated. The rats were divided into two groups as the study group (n: 10) and the controls (n: 10). 2 mL/kg/day of <em>Nigella sativa</em> oil was given to the rats in the study group orally. On Day 4 following acoustic trauma, ABR measurements were repeated again. There was no difference between the baseline hearing thresholds of the rats before acoustic trauma (P&gt;0.005). After the acoustic trauma, hearing thresholds were increased and there was no significant statistically difference between the hearing thresholds of the study and control groups (P=0.979). At the 4<sup>th</sup> day following acoustic trauma, hearing thresholds of the rats in control group were found to be higher than those in the study group (P=0.03). Our results suggest that <em>Nigella sativa</em> oil has a protective effect against acoustic trauma in early period. This finding should be supported with additional experimental and clinical studies, especially to determine the optimal dose, duration and frequency of potential <em>Nigella sativa</em> oil therapy. Belde Culhaoglu Selim S. Erbek Seyra Erbek Evren Hizal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 8 1 10.4081/audiores.2017.181